Joram Mayshar, Omer Moav, Zvika Neeman and Luigi Pascali find that one consistent difference between farming societies that developed complex hierarchies and those that did not was whether those societies relied on cereal grains or roots and tubers.
If 1000 people were killed in conflict India, a country with a population of more than 1.2 billion inhabitants, would this have the same impact on the country as a whole as 1000 victims in Nicaragua, a country of 6 million inhabitants? The intuitive answer might be no, but this is exactly what most of the conflict literature is doing. Hannes Mueller makes a case for rethinking the approach of using a threshold of an absolute number of battle victims.
Paula Bustos, Bruno Caprettini, and Jacopo Ponticelli show that the effect of agricultural productivity on industrialization depends crucially on the factor bias of agricultural innovation.
Gabriela Calderón, Jesse M. Cunha, and Giacomo De Giorgi conducted a randomized controlled trial by providing business training to small and micro female entrepreneurs in the poor, rural Mexican state of Zacatecas.
Alessandro Tarozzi, Jaikishan Desai, and Kristin Johnson investigate the impact of microcredits in rural Ethiopia.